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Theories Of Reasoning: Logic and Cognition
Reasoning is one of the key aspects of human cognition. Traditionally logic was meant as a systematic theory of human reasoning, but in the 20th century the main developments in logic focused on mathematics and its foundations, and logic has been gradually replaced by more specific cognitive theories of reasoning. Still, these theories are mostly inspired by classical consideration of logic, probability, and computations. In this course we are going to overview and compare the main proposals for theories of reasoning known from the literature: mental models theory, mental logic, and Bayesian rationality; contrast them with various purely logical approaches; and finally look into the future, where logic, probability, computations, and cognitive science meet to account for human reasoning.